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Clinical Research2018-10-04T12:29:03+00:00

EECP Clinical Research


Throughout the years, randomized, controlled clinical trials have been conducted to prove the efficacy of EECP for angina pectoris. There have been more than 200 published papers in peer-reviewed medical journals demonstrating safety and efficacy of EECP in the treatment of angina pectoris and chronic heart failure.


Publications Showcasing EECP


January 20, 2012
Chapter Dedicated to EECP® Therapy in New Textbook on Coronary Artery Disease

Throughout the years, randomized, controlled clinical trials have been conducted to prove the efficacy of EECP for angina pectoris. There have been more than 200 published papers in peer-reviewed medical journals demonstrating safety and efficacy of EECP in the treatment of angina pectoris and chronic heart failure.

“The long-term care of patients with chronic coronary artery disease requires the cardiologist to use aggressive _preventive methods and more cost-effective treatment to improve clinical and financial outcomes. EECP treatment is a safe, cost-effective, non-invasive method of restoring myocardial perfusion and reducing symptoms of angina. EECP treatment is the perfect disease management tool for chronic coronary artery disease.”

– John E. Strobeck, MD, PhD, Interventional Cardiologist,
Co-founder of the Heart Failure Society of America, Medical Director

Passing on Bypass
George Juetersonke, DO
Pikes Peak Press, 2001
Chapters 8-10

External Counterpulsation: A Novel Therapy to Stimulate Arteriogenesis
Nikolaos Pagonas,MD
Südwestdeutscher Verlag für Hochschulschriften
AG Co. KG, 2011

Enhanced External Counter-Pulsation
Jami Shakibi, MD,
FACC Self-Published, Tehran, Iran 2008

Heal Your Heart with EECP:
The Only Noninvasive Way to Overcome Heart Disease

Debra Braverman, MD
Berkley, California: Celestial Arts, 2005.

Heart Failure: Device Management
Arthur Feldman, MD, PhD
151-164West Sussex, UK: Blackwell
Publishing 2010
(Chapter 13. The Role of Enhanced
External Counterpulsation in Heart
Failure Management)

Angina Pectoris
Federico Piscione
137-158Ozlem Soran. Rijeka, Croatia:
InTech, October 2011
(Chapter 6, The Role of Enhanced
External Counterpulsation Therapy in
Management of Coronary Artery

EECP Research Studies


Below are some of the more than 200 clinical EECP research studies and papers published world-wide featuring EECP.

For a comprehensive compilation of research, please visit Vasomedical, Inc., owner of the registered trademark EECP:

  • EECP is a Regenerative Disease, Frontiers in Bioscience, Jan. 1, 2010
  • Enhanced External Counterpulsation Attenuates Atherosclerosis Progression Through Modulation of Proinflammatory Signal Pathway, Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010;30;773-780; originally published online Feb 11, 2010 John C.K. Hui and Zhensheng Zheng Zhimin Du, Yugang Dong, Yafei Jin, Wen He, Kuijian Wang, William E. Lawson,Yan Zhang, Xiaohong He, Donghong Liu, Guifu Wu, Xiaolin Chen, Hong Ma
  • Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, June 2010; Acute hemodynamic effects of enhanced external counterpulsation; Bhavananda T. Reddy, Andrew D. Michaels Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
  • India Heart Journal, 2010 Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) Therapy: Current Evidence For Clinical Practice And Who Will Benefit?
  • Impact of Enhanced External Counterpulsation on Canadian Cardiovascular Society Angina Class in Patients with Chronic Stable Angina: A Meta-analysis; Sachin A. Shah, Pharm.D., Robert J. Shapiro, Pharm.D., Rina Mehta, Pharm.D., and Jeffrey A. Snyder, Pharm.D.
  • Enhanced External Counterpulsation-A Review; LA Sayami, M Ullah, MT Rahman, Z Rahman, D Roy, AAS Majumder; Department of Cardiology, NICVD, Dhaka, Bangladesh.(Cardiovasc. j. 2010; 2(2) : 236-244)
  • Spine, 2010 Jul 1;35(15):1415-22.Enhanced external counterpulsation and traction therapy ameliorates rotational vertebral artery flow insufficiency resulting from cervical spondylosis.Xin W, Fangjian G, Hua W, Jiangtao X, Shouyi W, Yingchun Z, Xiong L.Department of Orthopedics, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuchang, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China.
  • Enhanced External Counter Pulsation (EECP) for Refractory Angina Pectoris (RAP); Results from a first case seriesWaqas Ahmed, Naveed Akhter, Ayesha Masood Department of Cardiology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2010
  • Circulation published online Oct 4, 2010; Khuddus, Darren T. Beck and Darren P. Casey, Randy W. Braith, C. Richard Conti, Wilmer W. Nichols, Calvin Y. Choi, Matheen A. Sham-Controlled Study Flow-Mediated Dilation in Patients With Chronic Angina. A RandomizedEnhanced External Counterpulsation Improves Peripheral Artery
  • Heart 2010 96: 202-207 originally published online November 5, 2009 Steffen Gloekler, Pascal Meier, Stefano F de Marchi, et al.Coronary collateral growth by external counterpulsation: a randomised controlled trial; http://heart.bmj.com/content/96/3/202.full.html
  • Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, June 2010; Role of external counterpulsation in the treatment of ischemic stroke Jing-Hao Han, Wai-Hong Leung, Ka-Sing Wong Departments of Medicine & Therapeutics; The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR
  • Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, June 2010; EECP in the treatment of endothelial dysfunction: preventing progression of cardiovascular disease; John CK Hui, William E Lawson, Gregory W Barsness
  • Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, June 2010; The four stages of development: a historical prospective of external counterpulsation; John CK Hui, Zhen-Sheng Zheng
  • Cerebrovascular Disease, Oct. 2010; Does External Counterpulsation Augment Mean Cerebral Blood Flow in the Healthy Brain? Effects of External Counterpulsation on Middle Cerebral Artery Flow Velocity and Cerebrovascular Regulatory Response in Healthy Subjects; G.J. Jungehuelsing a T.G. Liman a P. Brunecker a A. Ebel a M. Endres a I. Buschmann b N. Pagonas b E.E. Buschmann b, c on behalf of the Arteriogenesis Network and of the Center for Stroke Research Berlin a Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Department of Neurology, and Arteriogenesis Research, Department of Cardiology and Center for Cardiovascular Research, Charité University Medicine Berlin, and c Department of Cardiology, Helios Klinikum Berlin Buch, Berlin, Germany
  • International Journal of Cardiology, 2010; Effect of enhanced external counterpulsation on circulating CD34+ progenitor cell subsets; T.J. Kiernan 1, B.A. Boilson 1, L. Tesmer, A. Harbuzariu, R.D. Simari, G.W. Barsness
  • ARYA Atherosclerosis Journal, 2009; Effect of Enhanced External Counter Pulsation on Plasma Level of Nitric Oxide and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. Masoud Pourmoghadas(1), Hajar Nourmohamamadi(2), Faezeh Tabesh(2), Shaghayegh Haghjoo(3), Elham Tabesh(2)
  • Review: Enhanced external counterpulsation and future directions: step beyond medical management for patients with angina and heart failure. [J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007]
  • Effect of enhanced external counterpulsation treatment on renal function in cardiac patients. BMC Nephrology 2013, 14:193 doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-193.Prajej Ruangkanchanasetr, Nithi Mahanonda, Ongkarn Raungratanaamporn, Piyanuj Ruckpanich Chagriya Kitiyakara, Amnart Chaiprasert, Surawat Adirekkiat, Dollapas Punpanich, Somlak Vanavanan, Anchalee Chittamma, Thanom Supaporn.
  • Increasing pressure of external counterpulsation augments blood pressure but not cerebral blood flow velocity in ischemic stroke. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 8 December 2013. Wenhua Lin, Li Xiong, Jinghao Han, Howan Leung, Thomas Leung, Yannie Soo, Xiangyan Chen, Ka Sing Lawrence Wong.
  • Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) Improves Peripheral Artery Function and Glucose Tolerance in Subjects with Abnormal Glucose Tolerance. First published December 22, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01336.2011 J Appl Physiol 2012;112: 868–876.Martin JS, Beck DT, Aranda Jr. JM, Braith RW.
  • Effect of enhanced external counterpulsation on C-reactive protein and interlukin-6 in patients with coronary heart disease. Hainan, China Hainan Medical J. 2011; 22(3):56-57.WEI Hai-zhu.
  • Microvascular response to metabolic and pressure challenge in the human coronary circulation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 301: H434–H441, 2011. First published May 13, 2011; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.01283.2010Stefano F. de Marchi, Steffen Gloekler, Stefano F. Rimoldi, Patrizia Rölli, Hélène Steck, and Christian Seiler.
  • Hospital utilization and costs for spinal cord stimulation compared with enhanced external counterpulsation for refractory angina pectoris. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 2011 Epub 31 OCT 2011. Bondesson, S. M., Jakobsson, U., Edvinsson, L. and Hallberg, I. R.
  • Enhanced External Counterpulsation improves endothelial function, inflammatory markers and depression. ACC 60th Scientific Session 2011; J Am Coll Cardiol 57(14): E2011 Title: Best Fellows-In-Training Poster AwardsDeepak Hooda, Ravindra Bhardwaj, Wissam Gharib, Bradford E. Warden, Robert Beto, Abnash C. Jain.
  • Improvement of angina, quality of life, and working capacity after enhanced external counterpulsation. Ugeskr Laeger. 2013 Jan 14; 175(3):114-116.Jørgensen MT, May O.
  • Are peripheral arterial changes during enhanced external counterpulsation necessary for and/or evidence of an adequate cardiovascular response? Hypertension Research advance online publication, 24 January 2013; doi:10.1038/hr.2012.210.Daniel Bia and Yanina Zo´ calo.
  • The collateral circulation of the heart. BMC Medicine 2013, 11:143 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-143. Pascal Meier, Stephan H Schirmer, Alexandra J Lansky, Adam Timmis, Bertram Pitt, Christian Seiler.
  • Therapeutic effects of Enhanced External Counter Pulsation (EECP) on clinical symptoms, echocardiographic measurements, perfusion scan parameters and exercise tolerance test in coronary artery disease patients with refractory angina. Int J Med Sci Public Health. Online First: 24 Dec, 2012. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.179-187 Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(2): 179-187. doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.179-187.Eslamian F, Aslanabadi N, Mahmoudian B, Shakouri SK.
  • Enhanced external counterpulsation in patients with refractory angina pectoris: a pilot study with six months follow-up regarding physical capacity and health-related quality of life. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2012 Dec 21. DOI:19.1177/1474515112468067.Wu E, Mårtensson J, Broström A.
  • Anti-inflammatory effects of enhanced external counterpulsation in subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 10.1139/h2012-112. Published on the web 11 October 2012.Jeffrey S. Martin, Randy W. Braith.
  • Comparison of long term clinical outcomes, event free survival rates of patients undergoing enhanced external counterpulsation for coronary artery disease in the United States and Turkey.Turk Kardiyol Dem Ars – Arch Turk Soc Cardiol 2012;40(4):323-330Ozlem Soran, Coskun Ikizler, Atilla Sengui, Bilal Cuglan, Elizabeth Kennard, Sheryl Kelsey.
  • Enhanced External Counterpulsation for Ischemic Heart Disease: A Look Behind the Curtain.The American College of Sports Medicine Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 2012;40 (3):145-152.Randy W. Braith, Darren P. Casey, and Darren T. Beck.
  • The Effect of Enhanced External Counterpulsation on C-reactive protein and flow-mediated dilation in porcine model of hypercholesterolaemia.Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. 2012; 32 (4): 262–267Yanqiu L, Yan X, Dongshong L, Chufan L, Yan Z, Wu G, Qiang X, Yugang D, Zhensheng Z.
  • The therapeutic effects of enhanced external counterpulsation on refractory angina in patients, unsuitable for invasive interventions. The J of Urmia University of Medical Sciences 2012;April-May, 23(1):7-14Aslan Abadi Naser, Salehi Rezvaneyeh, Alizadeh Azin, Eslamityan Fariba, Ahmadzadeh Pournaky Ahmad, Tsban Sadeghi Mohamad Reza.
  • The Effects of Enhanced External Counterpulsation on Health-related Quality of Life in Patients with Angina Pectoris. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research 2012:17(1):1-7.Ziaeirad M, Ziaei GR, Sadeghi N, Motaghi M, Torkan B.

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