EECP History

EECP history begins in the 1950s at Harvard University.  At t his time in the earliest days of EECP history, the first counterpulsation technology with water hydraulics was invented. Soon thereafter, scientists and engineers in China collaborated with Americans to create what we know today as Enhanced External Counterpulsation or EECP. The term Enhanced External Counterpulsation was coined in the 1990s by Dr. John Hui, a founder of Vasomedical. He and his collaborators went on to describe an improved, proprietary technology for better ECP therapy.

In the annals of EECP, initial technology addressed chronic stable angina pectoris. Several clinical trials were conducted and worldwide, scientists, researchers and academicians have completed studies featuring EECP on a variety of clinical diagnoses.

EECP History

EECP Historical Timeline


The EECP Legacy is Born

The EECP legacy is born. Harken & Associates along with Dr. Clifford Birtwell develop counterpulsation techniques at Harvard University in the late 1950’s.

Hydraulic Counterpulsation

Hydraulic Counterpulsation

Harken and Associates and Birtwell developed the first counterpulsation technology at Harvard University. Counterpulsation techniques featured hydraulic compression. With technological advancements, pneumatic cuffs were invented that revolutionized counterpulsation therapy.


EECP Continued to Evolve

EECP Continued to Evolve

Several scientists evolved counterpulsation to a noninvasive technique using a primitive external device that applied pressure generated by a hydraulic system. Studies with early non-invasive machines demonstrated the potential to increase survival in patients with myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock and angina pectoris. Pneumatic devices soon replaced the cumbersome hydraulic machines.


National Institutes of Health

Scientists at the National Institutes of Health suggested enhanced results due to the sequential pulsation of blood from the extremities rather than the non-sequenced pulsation being used by hydraulic machines.


China Helps Perfect EECP

Zheng and colleagues at Sun Yat Sen University in China reported studies with a newly designed sequenced pulsation system using four sets of compression bladders on the patient’s legs, buttocks and arms. In these trials, effects of the sequenced system were studied in patients with angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction. In more than 90..Read More


The U.S. FDA approved EECP

The U.S. FDA approved EECP for treatment of cardiogenic shock and myocardial infarction (heart attack).


Dr. John Hui, Works with Dr. Clifford Birtwell

Dr. John Hui,works with Dr. Clifford Birtwell, the inventor of the concept of counter-pulsation. He is the last Fellow of Dr. Birtwell. Dr. Zheng and his colleagues at Sun Yat Sen University in China report their studies of a newly designed sequenced pulsation system using four sets of compression bladders on patient’s calves, thighs, buttocks..Read More


China Engages More with EECP

China began developing extensive technological advancements with EECP and continues to make positive strides.


SUNY-Stony Brook Research

Researchers from the State University of New York at Stony Brook determined that enhanced external counterpulsation continued to show helpful effects on patients even three years after treatment.

New Discoveries About the Power of EECP

New discoveries about the power of EECP become more prevalent as researchers from the State University of New York at Stony Brook determine that the EECP MC2 device shows beneficial effects on patients even three years post treatment. Researchers continue to prove the efficacy of EECP using the MC2 device as a non-surgical disease treatment.


The First Paper Describing the Modern Era of EECP

The first paper describing the modern era of EECP is published by Dr’s. Lawson, Soroff, Zheng and Hui using the term EECP. It marks the first instance the MC2 device is identified to describe the enhanced features of external counter-pulsation exclusively manufactured and trademarked by Vasomedical. This event precedes the publication of over 190 articles,..Read More


EECP Was Cleared by the FDA for Angina Pectoris

EECP Was Cleared by the FDA for Angina Pectoris

FDA clears use of EECP through the MC2 device for treatment of angina pectoris. In a quest to save lives, Sara Soulati begins her professional relationship with Dr. Hui which would ultimately span 21 years. She becomes an EECP Therapist at EECP West in Newport Beach California using the Vasomedical designed MC2 device.

The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA)

The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) denied Vasomedical, Inc.’s, manufacturer of EECP technology, application to approve EECP for angina. The given reason was that HCFA required a double-blind clinical study and publication of research in peer-review journals.


Sara Soulati enters the field of EECP

Sara Soulati began to study EECP for cardiovascular disease reversal and prevention as well as the effect of EECP on elite athletes.

Sara Teams with Dr. Juliam Whitaker

Sara Teams with Dr. Juliam Whitaker

Sara teams with Dr. Juliam Whitaker’s Wellness Institute receiving referrals of all his clients for EECP treatment of all disease types.  


Sara Soulati studies EECP and Sports

Sara Soulati leaves EECP West to work with the US Track and Field US Olympic 100 and 200 running teams to conduct studies on the effects of EECP relative to speed, recovery and exercise duration. The results are astounding, showing beneficial increase in athletic performance from just a single EECP therapy session.

Sara Works with the Cardiomedics ECP

Sara works with the Cardiomedics ECP device revealing the quality difference between differing manufacturers as it pertains to clinical results comparing Vasomedical’s MC2 and Cardiomedic’s ECP devices.


Sara is hired by Vasomedical

As a result of her work in the athletic field, Sara is hired by Vasomedical to market the EECP MC2 devices. She sells the first EECP MC2 device in the state of CA to the Pritikin Wellness Center in Santa Monica CA.

Vasomedical MUST Trial

Vasomedical presented to HCFA results of its Multicenter Study of EECP (MUST Trial) featuring seven medical centers and 139 patients in a double-blind study relating to Class I, II and III angina. HCFA’s Grant Bagley, MD, director of HCFA Coverage and Analysis, again denied coverage stating results of the MUST Trial needed to be published..Read More



After CMS failed to approve EECP for angina again, Wallace Haselton, a former member of Vasomedical’s board of directors, went head-to-head with HCFA to secure coverage of EECP for angina. He called Senator Edward Kennedy (D-Mass.), and together they petitioned the Senate Finance Committee, regulators, legislators and anyone they could enlist to help change the..Read More


EECP Approved by CMS

(five years after the FDA), Grant Bagley, MD, finally approved EECP for reimbursement, BUT only for these advanced conditions: Canadian Class III or class IV angina (FDA approval is for Canadian Class I, II, III, IV angina) A person’s condition is inoperable or at high risk of operative complications or post-operative failure. A person’s coronary..Read More


HCFA changed all references of EECP to ECP in written materials. These coverage guidelines issued by HCFA went unchallenged by the medical industry or manufacturers of EECP technology. These limited coverage guidelines remain in force today.


Sara Soulati continues her work in the Athletic Field

Sara Soulati continues her work in the athletic field with the Arena Football League franchise L.A. Avengers to further her sport studies for EECP treatment of exercise fatigue and traumatic sports injuries. Sara sells devices for Nicor Machines (they are now called Renew Inc.)


The American Heart Association

The American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology issued guidelines on treating angina stating that more studies are required on EECP before it can be recommended as a standard treatment for angina. So far, EECP has not been widely accepted in clinical practice.

Sara Soulati launches Global Cardio Care

ALT="Best California EECP Center, Global Cardio Care Centers"

Sara Soulati launches Global Cardio Care, Inc. in Inglewood, California in the heart of the African-American community.

The FDA approved EECP for treatment of congestive heart failure.

The FDA approved EECP for treatment of congestive heart failure.


Vasomedical begins producing the TS3 and TS4 device

Vasomedical ceases manufacturing of the MC2 device and begins producing the TS3 and TS4 device. She travels to China to meet Dr. Zheng and his colleagues at Sun Yat Sen University where she is introduced to Vamed, the manufactures of the MC2 device. She then launches the largest out patient EECP facility in West L.A...Read More


EECP Benefits

Several studies also found that EECP shows some benefit for patients with stabilized heart failure.


Vasomedical & PEECH Trial

Vasomedical released results of its Prospective Evaluation of Enhanced External Counterpulsation in Congestive Heart Failure (PEECH) study for congestive heart failure and published results in a peer-review journal. This study found that patients with mid- to moderate-severe heart failure experienced an improvement in their New York Heart Association (NYHA) class after counterpulsation. However, the long-term..Read More

CMS Denies Vasomedical

CMS denied the request by Vasomedical to approve Medicaid reimbursement of EECP for congestive heart failure, advanced stages of angina, cardiogenic shock or coronary artery disease.

Clinical Research Continues

Clinical Research Continues

Clinical researchers have continued to publish studies on the efficacy of EECP in support of disease treatment.


Sara Soulati perfects the Sara Soulati Health for Life Program

Sara Soulati perfects the Sara Soulati Health for Life Program

Sara Soulati perfects the Sara Soulati Health for Life Program, a lifestyle medicine program based on plant-based nutrition to prevent and reverse cardiovascular disease

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